The Science of Process
In order to better understand Renoir’s process, conservators (professionals trained in the examination, treatment, and preservation of art) at The Phillips Collection undertook a technical study to look beneath the surface of the paint.
An x-radiograph (refer to the terminology chart) of the Luncheon of the Boating Party has revealed that Renoir made numerous changes to the coposition. One of the most dramatic changes is found in the lower left where Aline Charigot sits holding her dog. Originally, Renoir painted a woman looking out at the viewer, who wore a different dress and had her arm was in a different position folded against her side. In a letter to his friend Paul Bérard, Renoir explained:
Another technique used by conservators to look beneath the surface is infrared imaging (refer to the terminology chart), which revealed Renoir’s focus on the still-life arrangement on the table in the foreground—two wine glasses were painted out and one of the tall glasses was originally a wine glass. The reflectogram also shows that the figure in the top hat, Charles Ephrussi, originally faced the viewer instead of turned toward Jules Laforgue.
Some changes can even be seen by close examination of the surface of the painting. For example, the red and white awning that covers the diners was added later in the creation of the painting. This addition created a more intimate and enclosed atmosphere, as opposed to imagining the painting with a view of the open sky and background landscape. Looking closely, a viewer can see a slight halo around the hat of Jules-Alphonse Fournaise where Renoir adjusted the hat’s placement to accommodate the added awning.
In the classroom activities below, students will use the x-radiograph and infrared image to identify changes in Renoir’s process and apply these new revelations to learn about his process. Students will also empathize with Renoir’s challenges in creating the painting.
X-Radiograph of Luncheon of the Boating Party
Conservation Studio, The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC
Infrared Image of Luncheon of the Boating Party
Conservation Studio, The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC.
Excerpt from Letters to Paul Bérard Written from Chatou
La Revue de Paris (Paris Review).
In the Classroom: Interview a Conservator Activity
Ask students to conduct research on x-radiography and infrared imaging as tools in art conservation. Students can identify the differences in the type of information each technique reveals. Then, have students develop questions about each technology. As a class, refine the list to the top five or ten questions and try to locate an art conservator to send these questions to. Students can either send them via email and/or set up a call with an art conservator to interview them via videoconference.
If students are not able to get in touch with an art conservator, review a selection of resources on art conservators and conservation:
- American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
- Lunder Conservation Center
- National Gallery Art Conservation
- Tate: Restoring Rothko
- RTI and Art Conservation
- Milton Bancroft Art Conservation Project
What new information did students learn about art conservation? What other technologies and techniques are used?
In the Classroom: Letter Writing Activity
Visual and technical analysis allow conservators to understand Renoir’s process. However, Renoir also revealed some of his challenges in painting Luncheon of the Boating Party through letters. In the fall of 1880, he wrote to patron and friend Paul Bérard, explaining his frustration about one of the sitters who he decided to replace with Aline Charigot (see quotation above).
Using the x-radiograph and infrared images, identify compositional changes in Luncheon of the Boating Party, such as the addition of the awning. Ask students to select one of those changes and empathize with Renoir’s feeling of frustration by writing a letter to Paul Bérard or another Impressionist painter. Have students express the challenge Renoir faced and how he sought to overcome it.